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The Linux Gurus —

New Linux Users Guide – Understanding Defragging on Linux

Computer users who are used to a Windows PC or Mac know  how important performing the defragging option on a computer can be. After a period of time the hard drive of a computer becomes fragmented and it can cause the computer to slow down.  When a computer user switches over to a Linux operating system one of the first questions that comes up is about the defragging process.


To clear up any confusion here’s a guide to the basic questions that are asked by first time Linux users about the defragging process.


Where Do You Defrag on Linux?

Tux, the Linux penguin

Image via Wikipedia


New Linux users will notice that there is no defragment command on Linux. This can be confusing if you are used to defragging the computer. The reason for this is because Linux is set up so well that you do not need to defrag your computer. Where Macs and Windows will slow down at the slightest defragment, Linux will slow down only when it’s 40-50% fragmented so users rarely have to defrag.


What Do I Do to Defrag?


If you really wish to defrag your computer that is using a Linux operating system you will need to download various tools and software that will perform this function. Experts recommend downloading EX2 File System for Windows as this is the easiest and best defragment program. This tool requires that you know how to dual-boot and run it on a Windows operating system but it can be done.


New Linux users will notice that it is a whole new computer world with this new operating system. This guide should help you with the basic questions about defragmentation.

Restoring Files From Linux After They Were Deleted

When using the computer mistakes are going to happen. The most common mistake is deleting a file that was not supposed to be deleted. While some operating systems make correcting this mistake easy, deleting a file off of Linux and restoring it can be difficult.


If you have accidentally deleted a file off the Linux operating system here are the steps you need to take see you can restore the missing file.


Step One: Find the Partition

Tux, as originally drawn by Larry Ewing

Image via Wikipedia


You must find the partition section where the file was located. This can be done by performing the PWD command and searching for the missing file.


Step Two: Use Unmount


The command unmount can be used to make sure the file will not be overwritten or accidently deleted. Simply type “unmount” and the file and this will protect the file you wish to restore.


Step Three: Use Debugfs


The debugfs will make sure no errors occur on your Linux operating system. Occasionally when restoring a file a can cause the operating system to interpret it as an error and shut it down. Performing a debugfs command will prevent this from happening while you restore your deleted file.


Step Four: Use Isdel


While the debugfs command is running you will want to use the isdel command. This command forces Linux to create a list of all recently deleted files. The time it takes Linux to create a list of deleted files will vary depending upon how many files you have recently deleted.


Step Five: Recover

Once you have found the files you can undelete them by typing in the command dump (filename). This will restore your files.

Important Computer Hardware Technology

Important computer hardware technology advancements are in demand and continue to be made within the industry. Computers are used for different things from word processing such as for making lists to graphic systems for printing flyers.

Computers continue to have advancements to improve running time, convenience and overall speed. A computer is known to have eight elements that are important to the hardware technology advancements of the device. These are:

  • Power supply
  • Cooling fans
  • Hard drive
  • Various devices including DVD and CD-Rom drives and external hard drive
  • Motherboard
  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • Random Access Memory (RAM)

The power supply is how the computer gets the power to work and the cooling fan, which could include one or more. It helps keep everything inside the computer cool from heating up while working.

The hard drive stores everything needed for the computer. This has the operating system as well as all software and even games. The motherboard is the connection of the elements needed for the computer’s function. The CPU is known as the computer’s brain making it the main controlling factor of the computer hardware. Then RAM is memory storage that comes in a variety of sizes and speeds. It can be added to increase RAM on a computer. It needs to be compatible with the motherboard though to work properly.

Sure, all of these elements are typical hardware elements found in a computer. Nevertheless, as people make more and more demands on their computers then they want them to work faster, add memory and increase storage. These demands mean technology advancements are vital. Those working within computer and hardware manufacturing are competing with each other. They want to have the best product so their hardware will be purchased over others.

Multitasking with Linux

A big part of the highly used software operating system Linux is multitasking. Linux is a popular system that is found on such things as gaming systems, phones, PDAs and more.

Multitasking for computers is similar to a person that takes on many different projects at once.  Linux multitasks by working on multiple processes or tasks. This operating system can work on one project and do well and can give the same dedication to each task if working on 10 or more. Linux may not even realize it is running different tasks because it works as if it is dedicated to one task.

How much can Linux  really do while multitasking? Well, this really depends on a few useful elements such as:

  • Computer memory
  • Central processing unit speed
  • Program size

Computer users want to do multitasking with Linux and any software operating systems. Busy, Busy, Busy!! They have many things they want to get done and the more multitasking a computer can do the better because the more they can get done as well. If a computer system can’t handle multitasking then it won’t be popular with users no matter what else it has going for it that users love. Therefore, all the major operating systems including Linux use multitasking.

Multitasking with Linux makes it an efficient system that has become successful over the years. It has also lead to its long life of increased use. An added element of Linux multitasking is each project is an independent element. If one of the elements working during multitasking crashes for some reason the other elements being worked on at the same time will still be working fine. It also rarely causes the system to automatically reboot.

Windows Advancements for Small Business

The internet is benefiting small businesses. This is because if they have a website they are on the internet that reaches across the world. This marketing tool gives them the possibility of a larger customer base leading to more profit. A Windows advancement is designed to help small businesses as well.

There are many millions of small businesses as well as mid-size businesses that have around two personal computers. Nevertheless, over 50 percent of these businesses have no server or central computer for their services. That’s why Windows has created an advancement to give these businesses server opportunities. They introduce the Windows Small Business Server 2011 as a way to eliminate this vacancy.

Some things to consider about this opportunity are:

*High costs





There are three options to choose from with this technology. These are the standard, essential and premium add-on options.  Use the standard option for a small business that wants to work with a server at the work location. It is a complete solution that works with communication as well as collaborative technology. It handles up to 75 while the next step handles up to 25. That is the Essentials option, which is user friendly and is designed for the smallest business. It is priced the lower budget as well and will work to collaborate the entire office with online service. It can be upgraded. The premium add-on is considered to be powerful when it comes to management as well as analysis. It is also versatile working with all Microsoft servers.

Having a server will help with office management and organization as well as expanding business opportunities. Advancements continue to be made and small businesses are really starting to benefit because of these options.

Improving Programming with Linux

Anyone that wants to improve programming can consider doing so with Linux. There are some things to know first though.

Linux is an operating system that was developed through industrial strength concepts that optimize use. When using Linux it takes less space to use than say the popular Windows system. That means there is more space available for storing and using other elements.

There are a variety of ways to learn Linux to help improve programming. There are courses as well as books that give complete details about Linux working processes as well as techniques. Even websites provide information and resources for Linux education.

Those interested will find many different computer languages exist and Linux can accept a variety. This makes Linux versatile and very user friendly. Computer language is important because it gets a program to work efficiently allowing the computer to understand commands. Some of the computer languages that work with Linux are:





Linux is often easy to assess as well which can help improve programming. It is available through a General Public License. The user just needs to know what type of Linux system will be best for their needs. Even if the public doesn’t recognize Linux as an operating program they benefit from its platform. It has been used in watches, cell phones, TiVo, Sony PlayStation and many other elements that have been improved programming with Linux.

Improving programming with Linux can occur for many things from gamming and desktop publishing to internet visits and e-mail checking. It really provides a freedom for individuals to program freely.

Linux Core Technology

Linux is a popular software operating system that works on many hardware elements including IBM products through its technology design.

The Linux technology foundation is the kernel. This is the software’s core taking care of requests made toward the computer. Linux software varies because of how the unique kernel is handled. Examples of Linux technology benefits because of variety including:

*Using the Linux technology kernel for graphics

*Allowing shared access to the kernel

*Faster processing

Some computer users working with graphics use more graphics than others. Therefore, not every version is set up for major graphics. It is primarily a server operator for professionals. Anyone that is a beginner with Linux technology allows an option to using specific programs. It even helps make switching from one system to another easy. Check the Linux program to make sure it will do the job that you need it to do. Linux technology does not relate to Windows in the point-click system format. Instead, users control the computer through certain applications to make the computer do what you want.

It is considered being difficult to work with Linux technology unless being educated in all the techniques. Nevertheless, when Linux technology is understood and conquered then the benefit is a more flexible system. Linux technology allows it to be a powerful system that has specific conditions. When it comes to Linux the quality technology also helps it to continue to work properly. IT professionals often choose Linux over other such systems.

Furthermore, Linux technology and overall support is available. Some groups offer free support and others charge to assist with this. Finding good support is vital to benefiting from Linux. Research helps when searching for quality support.

Outlook 2011: Technology Advances

There are technology advances every year. Even every week there seems to be something new introduced. What is the outlook for technology advances in 2011?”

There are many branches when it comes to the technology field making it sure to be a long list of items being considered and finalized for 2011. Here are just a few on the medical technology advance branch:

  1. Technology advances for diabetics could change the way they check their blood sugar levels. This is a special lens, similar to a contact lens that is put in the eye to tests glucose levels found in tears.
  2. An ultrasound working with Smartphone technology is designed to help doctors while on location. They will be able to get an image inside the body using a hand-held device.
  3. Devices are in creation to help individuals that have paralysis or an epilepsy condition. A technologically advanced chip is being used to stimulate neurons in the brain and help the body to move properly.
  4. Medical robots have been around for decades that assist with surgical procedures. These are advancing in how well they work from repairing obstructed kidneys to electrophysiology.
  5. Even the instruments traditionally used by a doctor are showing signs of technological advancement. There are devices that monitor a person’s vital signs at home and devices to detect health issues, such as related to heart rates. This could someday include effective home check-ups for patients unable to leave the home.

All of these considerations are making technology advancements that could help save lives and add quality life in the future.

Linux Benefits

Linux, a computer software operating system, has a variety of benefits. This popular system is found in many popular elements such as phones and PDAs.

Many may not have heard much about Linux and they may not understand the benefits over using Windows or other popular and similar operating systems. For starters, Linux is unique since it is an open source operating system. Elements of this type of operating system include:

*It has a public license allowing users access to software for free, in most cases. There is a source code that even allows the user to make changes.

*This provides more secure software since there is a team with various backgrounds that worked on it.

*It is compatible when it comes to other such platforms.

*This has no vendor lock-in., which means the software owner can move content to storage.

*Chances are Linux is safe from being shut down because it is owned, developed and supported by a group of companies.

Linux seems to have many benefits. Users can feel good about using Linux because of how it handles system crashes. This program handles unknown elements or software and is designed not to have a full system crash. That is a wonderful benefit especially if someone has a major term paper due or career making project presentation to make in just a few hours. Linux even doesn’t have as much trouble with Spyware or Adware as well as other such computer terrorisers. Using Linux also gives users more security because it is not an application, but the system is built into the program making it stronger.

Windows and Applications

Microsoft Windows has a wide array of applications. Some come already in place on the computer when purchased and others are available for download, for a minimal fee or free. There are even application upgrades available.

First, a Windows application is known as software programs. They work on any computer that uses the Microsoft Windows operating system. Second, it is good to understand a little more about a software application. This is also known as a program. It performs a particular function  by collaboratively working together in a logical set.

Third, when using a Microsoft Windows application it is typically contained in a “window” shape, but this is not always the case. When talking about a “window” this refers to the software working in screen sets that each handle a program or application. The “window “could provide control options for the “window”, but it does not have to do so. Another element that might be controlled is the program area size or shape.

Examples are:

*Mozilla Firefox

This is a free web browser with an open source. It is considered one of the top used web browsers worldwide.

*Microsoft Internet Explorer

This is a graphic web browser series that also goes by the name Windows Internet Explorer. It is frequently updated to help develop the best information and performance possible.


This application is a simple editing program for text that includes the capabilities of changing text font and size. It is used to not only edit, by just view text as well.

*Microsoft Excel

This program is used as a spreadsheet application. It includes tables, graphic tools and calculation features.


When a program gets a glitch using a debugging process is a way of fixing the program or cleaning away the “bug”. There are a variety of debugging applications, but it is important to use one that works with Windows when running Windows.