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Microsoft Windows

Using the Windows System Restore Function

Windows XP

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A lot of Windows users may experience serious operating system problems. These problems may be a result of spyware, viruses, software issues or hardware that was improperly installed. Any one of these issues can render the system partially or in some cases, completely unusable.

Fortunately, Windows comes with a System Restore utility that, in most cases, can solve the problems. It is a very speedy task — as long as you did not disable this feature.

Windows XP or ME Restore Instructions
Click the “start” menu and navigate to “programs.” Then go to “Accessories,” “System Tools” and finally, to “System Restore.”

Choose the” restore my computer to an earlier time” option and click “next.”

Select a date from the calendar that is presented. This calendar will only present dates that contain available restore points.

Click on your preferred date, followed by clicking on “next.” You will then click OK and “next,” at which time your computer will automatically shut down. Upon restart it will be restored to the point you previously indicated.

Windows Vista or 7 Restore Instructions.
Go to the start menu and navigate the following:
All Programs
System Tools
System Restore

From “system restore,” click on “choose a different restore point,” followed by clicking on “next.”

Click on your desired restore point, followed by clicking on “next,” and the finally the “finish” option.

You will then click “yes,” when you are prompted. The restore feature will automatically shut down your computer. Once again, upon start up your system will have been restored to your chosen restore point.

New Linux Users Guide – Understanding Defragging on Linux

Computer users who are used to a Windows PC or Mac know  how important performing the defragging option on a computer can be. After a period of time the hard drive of a computer becomes fragmented and it can cause the computer to slow down.  When a computer user switches over to a Linux operating system one of the first questions that comes up is about the defragging process.


To clear up any confusion here’s a guide to the basic questions that are asked by first time Linux users about the defragging process.


Where Do You Defrag on Linux?

Tux, the Linux penguin

Image via Wikipedia


New Linux users will notice that there is no defragment command on Linux. This can be confusing if you are used to defragging the computer. The reason for this is because Linux is set up so well that you do not need to defrag your computer. Where Macs and Windows will slow down at the slightest defragment, Linux will slow down only when it’s 40-50% fragmented so users rarely have to defrag.


What Do I Do to Defrag?


If you really wish to defrag your computer that is using a Linux operating system you will need to download various tools and software that will perform this function. Experts recommend downloading EX2 File System for Windows as this is the easiest and best defragment program. This tool requires that you know how to dual-boot and run it on a Windows operating system but it can be done.


New Linux users will notice that it is a whole new computer world with this new operating system. This guide should help you with the basic questions about defragmentation.

Multitasking with Linux

A big part of the highly used software operating system Linux is multitasking. Linux is a popular system that is found on such things as gaming systems, phones, PDAs and more.

Multitasking for computers is similar to a person that takes on many different projects at once.  Linux multitasks by working on multiple processes or tasks. This operating system can work on one project and do well and can give the same dedication to each task if working on 10 or more. Linux may not even realize it is running different tasks because it works as if it is dedicated to one task.

How much can Linux  really do while multitasking? Well, this really depends on a few useful elements such as:

  • Computer memory
  • Central processing unit speed
  • Program size

Computer users want to do multitasking with Linux and any software operating systems. Busy, Busy, Busy!! They have many things they want to get done and the more multitasking a computer can do the better because the more they can get done as well. If a computer system can’t handle multitasking then it won’t be popular with users no matter what else it has going for it that users love. Therefore, all the major operating systems including Linux use multitasking.

Multitasking with Linux makes it an efficient system that has become successful over the years. It has also lead to its long life of increased use. An added element of Linux multitasking is each project is an independent element. If one of the elements working during multitasking crashes for some reason the other elements being worked on at the same time will still be working fine. It also rarely causes the system to automatically reboot.

Improving Programming with Linux

Anyone that wants to improve programming can consider doing so with Linux. There are some things to know first though.

Linux is an operating system that was developed through industrial strength concepts that optimize use. When using Linux it takes less space to use than say the popular Windows system. That means there is more space available for storing and using other elements.

There are a variety of ways to learn Linux to help improve programming. There are courses as well as books that give complete details about Linux working processes as well as techniques. Even websites provide information and resources for Linux education.

Those interested will find many different computer languages exist and Linux can accept a variety. This makes Linux versatile and very user friendly. Computer language is important because it gets a program to work efficiently allowing the computer to understand commands. Some of the computer languages that work with Linux are:





Linux is often easy to assess as well which can help improve programming. It is available through a General Public License. The user just needs to know what type of Linux system will be best for their needs. Even if the public doesn’t recognize Linux as an operating program they benefit from its platform. It has been used in watches, cell phones, TiVo, Sony PlayStation and many other elements that have been improved programming with Linux.

Improving programming with Linux can occur for many things from gamming and desktop publishing to internet visits and e-mail checking. It really provides a freedom for individuals to program freely.

Windows and Applications

Microsoft Windows has a wide array of applications. Some come already in place on the computer when purchased and others are available for download, for a minimal fee or free. There are even application upgrades available.

First, a Windows application is known as software programs. They work on any computer that uses the Microsoft Windows operating system. Second, it is good to understand a little more about a software application. This is also known as a program. It performs a particular function  by collaboratively working together in a logical set.

Third, when using a Microsoft Windows application it is typically contained in a “window” shape, but this is not always the case. When talking about a “window” this refers to the software working in screen sets that each handle a program or application. The “window “could provide control options for the “window”, but it does not have to do so. Another element that might be controlled is the program area size or shape.

Examples are:

*Mozilla Firefox

This is a free web browser with an open source. It is considered one of the top used web browsers worldwide.

*Microsoft Internet Explorer

This is a graphic web browser series that also goes by the name Windows Internet Explorer. It is frequently updated to help develop the best information and performance possible.


This application is a simple editing program for text that includes the capabilities of changing text font and size. It is used to not only edit, by just view text as well.

*Microsoft Excel

This program is used as a spreadsheet application. It includes tables, graphic tools and calculation features.


When a program gets a glitch using a debugging process is a way of fixing the program or cleaning away the “bug”. There are a variety of debugging applications, but it is important to use one that works with Windows when running Windows.

Windows vs. Linus – A Comparison

Windows 7, the latest client version in the Mi...
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A large majority of people use the most well known operating system; Widows. For a lot of people, this is because this is what came with their computer, or they purchase it because it is something that they know the name of, and are familiar with. This does not necessarily make it the best. If you are in the market for something new, or are just plain tired of Windows, you may want to consider Linux. You may be wondering why Linux could be a good idea for you.

If you are looking for a new operating system, but are a little low on funds, you may be shocked by the price of a Windows operating system. They can get extremely expensive, especially for those on a budget. Linux, on the other hand, is actually free to get. If you have multiple computers that you are looking for an operating system for, you may actually be required to buy multiple licenses with Windows. In fact, you generally have to buy one license per computer. The price of this can stack up quickly. No matter how many computers you are looking to set up, Linux is always free.

It has been said that Linux is a much safer operating system than Windows, as well. In part, this is because it is used much less, but another reason is said to be because it is an open source software. In other words, if there was a virus that got out, there would be a fix for it very quickly. With Windows, you have to wait for one company to come up with the patches and fixes, while with an open source software, you will quickly find that there are programs and fixes programed not only by the company, but by other users, as well.

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Basics of Installing Linux

If you have only used computers that came pre booted with one of the Windows operating systems, you may never have had to install an operating system before. If you have decided to make the switch to Linux, you may be surprised at how easy it actually is to install an operating system. Even though there are hundreds of options out there for you as to which distribution of Linux you will use, when installing the operating system, you will be using essentially the same steps for every distribution.

You have a few different options that you will want to consider, first. If you are using a computer that you already have, rather than purchasing a new computer with Linux already installed, you will need to decide whether you are going to only run Linux, or if you would prefer to have your computer dual boot, which means that you will have both Windows and Linux on your computer. You will be able to then choose which system you actually start up in when you start your computer.

Before you install, you will need to get ready. Start by backing up all the information that is currently on your computer that you want to save. You may even want to write down your network information, such as your IP address, router information, DNS, etc. After you have this information all together, you will start the installation. Turn off your computer.

When you turn it back on, you will insert the first installation CD into your CD drive. This will show a boot menu, and you will want to choose to install Linux. You will have options as to what software you want to install with the operating system. Once all of your options are chosen, the installation will continue with what you have decided you want. You will need to choose a password, and configure your network. Have fun with your new system!

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Downloading Software for Linux

BEIJING, CHINA-OCTOBER 23: A woman looks at th...
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If you’re looking for more software options for Linux, there are ways you can download some without needing to purchase expensive software packages. A lot of people don’t think of that because they don’t use Linux – or don’t use it often – so the idea that there are plenty of programs to use with Linux isn’t something that people take advantage of as much as they should. They use Windows, which is a much more common operating system. While the majority of people think that it’s more user-friendly than Linux, there are good reasons to use other options, too.

Linux can do things that Windows can’t, and that means it’s often used to create other kinds of programs or perform tasks that are necessary and that can’t be done with other operating systems. People who are more ‘techy’ use it to handle things they want to do – and things that they want to have more control over. Downloading software for Linux doesn’t have to be difficult, as long as you know what you’re looking for. If you’re new to Linux, it’s worth spending some time figuring it out and learning about it. If you do that, you’ll be much more likely to use Linux properly and get the most benefit from it.

Don’t assume you can or can’t do a specific thing with Linux, or with software that you get for it. Make sure you research your options, so you know what you’re getting – and that should be true whether you pay for the software or get it for free. Talking to others who use Linux is also a good idea. That way you’ll have a better understanding of all you can do with the operating system and the software that you download and use with it.

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A Quick Look at MythTV

If you are looking for something that is compatible with your Linux operating system, that will be able to record TV, allow you to watch, fast forward, pause, and more, you may want to consider MythTV. Basically, MythTV is a digital video recorder, very similar to the one that you may have with your satellite or cable television. The difference is that this program is open source, and usable with your Linux operating system.

With MythTV, you can not only watch movies that you already have on your computer, but you are able to also watch live television. It is the free, open source alternative to programs such at TiVo or Windows Media Center. There is so much that you can do with MythTV. Not only can you watch television and DVDs, but you can also store your pictures, and watch a slide show of them. Music is compatible to store on MythTV as well.

Originally, MythTV was created in 2002 as a better way to be able to view cable television. It was created at first, to only be compatible with the Linux operating system. At this point, it is also usable on BSD and Mac OS X. Very recently, it has also been found that it may be possible to soon make a version of the software for Microsoft Windows.

The front end, or the interface that you use, allows you to decide what you will do with the program. It even gives you television listing guides. If you want to see what shows you have recording, you can easily do that from the front end, as well.

If you are looking for a system for your computer that allows you to watch your videos and television, even in high definition, check out MythTV. You are even able to split what the program is doing for different locations, so that it works best for each task.

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Common Linux Commands

Installing Microsoft Windows Vista
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If you have used Microsoft Windows for most of the time that you have used computers, you may not be very used to using commands on your computer. With Linux, commands help the system run a little more smoothly and easily. There are tons of commands out there, but there are some basic ones that you may want to master.

If you use the command cat [filename], this is telling your computer that you want to see the contents of the file. It will display these contents.

Changing who in the system owns a file is as easy as using chown[options]filename.

Typing in the command clear will clean out the command line or the window that you are in so that you can start over.

If you want to see the time and date of the system, or even if you want to change it, date[options] will help you with this function.

Df[options] allows the computer to show you how much of your disk space is available, and how much has been used.

If you want to stop a stubborn process, using kill[options]pid will allow you to do this.

Many times, you may find that you are looking for a particular file on your computer, but are having trouble finding the file, you may want to try using locate filename.

Changing a password can be as easy as using the command passwd[name[password]].

Almost anything that you are looking to do can have a command that will make it a little smoother and easier to do. Though you generally do not need to use the command codes on your computer, knowing them and understanding them can be a valuable thing for anyone using a Linux system. If you are in the root, you will want to be extremely careful about what commands you use, and even being logged in as a regular use, you may want to be sure you know the command is what you want to do, before you use it.

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